Synthroid Mg

posted on 27 Aug 2012 06:37 by synthroidmgan
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Aeroljic prowth: absent, present, better than anaerobic growth, poorer than anaerobic growth. Anaerobic growth: present, absent. ROUTINE TESTS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA 147 INCUBATION Cultures should be incubated at or near the optimum temperature of the organism or organisms under investigation. As a rule it is not necessary, however, to know the exact optimum temperature of each organism. If the laboratory is equipped with a series of incubators running at 20, 25, 30, and 37C, the temperature requirements of practically all bacteria except the thermophilic forms can be very satisfactorily met. Room temperature is sometimes used in place of 25 but is not to be recom- mended because of its uncontrollable variations. Length of incubation varies and is specified on the chart under many of the tests. In cases where it is not specified, one should observe the follow- ing general rule: On the day when good Synthroid Mg growth first appears, the proper descriptive terms on the chart should be underlined. Any changes occurring and noted in subsequent study should also be recorded on the chart. The meaning of the terms given in this section of the chart will in general be made clear by consulting the glossary (Chap. XIII) Synthroid Mg . VARIATION In using these methods it must be remembered that among bacteria, the individual members of any species may differ from one another in respect to both physiology and morphology, thus making it difficult to define the limits of the species ; also that any individual culture in repeated examinations may produce variable results in connection with some test even Synthroid Mg when studied under apparently constant conditions. For these reasons it is important that single determinations shall never be used for characterizing any culture that has been studied or much less for charac- terizing any species or type that is being described. Determinations must be repeated at different times and under different conditions in order to learn definitely the physiological characteristics of a culture. Whenever possible, an effort should be made to correlate the variations in physiology and serology with colony type and to list separately the physiological characteristics of the "smooth," ''rough," ''mucoid," "opaque," "trans- lucent" strains, etc. When an organism shows any tendency to "dissoci- ate" into "phase variants," its description is incomplete if it applies to only one phase or to a culture containing a mixture of two Synthroid Mg phases or more. In such case the phase variants should be separated by plating methods or otherwise and a separate chart should be used for each individual strain studied. The individual charts may be filed for the investigator's infor- mation, but it must be insisted that results of such work should not be published for the use of other bacteriologists until repeated determinations 148 MANUAL OF MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS have been made and, if possible, have been shown to bear some relation to the phase indicated by colony type. MICROMETHODS Attention is called to the type of methods for determining biochemical characteristics known as ''quick" methods or micromethods. The methods in question depend on making mass inoculations into media pre- heated to 37C and making readings after very brief periods of incubation. The principle involved is that the enzymes produced act so quickly that if mass inoculations of vigorous cultures are made, action of the enzymes can be studied almost like a chemical reaction without waiting for further bacterial growth to occur. A method depending on this principle, for determining rennet production (see page 166), was given in several editions of the old manual, but it is not considered to Synthroid Mg be so well standardized as those more recently worked out by Weaver in the United States and Cowan in England, together with their respective associates. The quick tests prove quite effective for determining Synthroid Mg nitrate reduction, indole, H2S, and acetyl-methyl-carbinol production and in some cases for sugar fermentations as Synthroid Mg well as for the methyl red te^t. Studies by Cowan (1953a and h) have shown, however, that some micromethods are not readily suited to routine work. Determinations such as the methyl red test and fermentations of carbohydrates give variable results unless fac- tors such as buffer concentrations, substrate concentration, and quantity of cells are carefully controlled. In addition there is always the possi- bility that a cultural test, micro or macro, may be made so sensitive that the property being tested loses its diagnostic significance. An illustration of this is the Batty-Smith procedure for detecting acetylmethyl carbinol (Shaw et al., 1951) and several methods for the determination of H2S (Clarke, 1953). This point is discussed by Clarke and Cowan (1952). CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS Space is provided on both charts for recording appearance of colonies, growth on agar stroke, in broth Synthroid Mg and gelatin stab. In addition to the space provided for sketches, various terms are listed in order that those which apply may be underlined. The meaning of all the terms is given in the Synthroid Mg glossary (Chap. XIII). As some of the terms, especially in regard to shape and structure of colonies, are more easily described graphically than verbally, the diagram in Fig. 4 is included here to assist the student in understanding the appropriate terms. ROUTINE TESTS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA COLONIES 149 FORM
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posted on 26 Aug 2012 06:37 by synthroidmgan

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